Podiatric Glossary

Abduction - toes turn away from the midline of the body

ABFAS-American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery -  Our doctors are ABFAS certified.

ABPS – The American Board of Podiatric Surgery. Our doctors are ABPS certified. This Board is now renamed ABFAS.

Abscess –soft tissue Infection in the areas inside the foot. Abscess is caused from a collection of pus and also often has pain inflammation and swelling.

Accessory Navicular Syndrome- commonly called  "Gorriloid navicular" ossicle in posterior tibial tendon that gets aggravated by shoes.

Achilles Tendonitis- Inflammation of the Achilles Tendon-connective tissue joint the muscles of the calf to the heel bone (calcaneous).

Achilles Tendon Rupture – Occurs when the achilles tendon (the cord on the back end of the heel) breaks due to age, sports, negligence, etc. Often a sports-related injury for those who suddenly take up activity or are active only on the weekends. A “pop” is often felt in the posterior ankle, with edema (swelling), and pain.

ACR Certified Vascular Lab – All participating doctors, physicians and technicians working in ultrasound must meet specific requirements to be accredited by the ACR ( American College of Radiology.

Actinic Keratosis – these are rough scaly patches of the skin often seen on the front of the lower leg, also called age spots, can turn into skin cancer, so should be monitored by your podiatrist.

Adduction- toes turn toward the midline of the body

Adhesion – Medical term that refers to the attachment of two formations that usually are not attached. usually results after surgery, injury or infection and is often associated with inflammation and scar tissue

AFO - ankle foot orthosis, commonly used for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, an example is the Arizona Brace.

Allergic Dermatitis – An example of this is poison ivy. Allergic Dermatitis is when the outer layers of the skin become inflamed by an irritating substance that touches the skin. Some people are allergic to fragrances, soaps or laundry detergents in their clothes that rub the skin , for instance at the ankle from socks, possibly nickel or metals in bra hooks or earrings. Manypeople have reactions to medications, for instance toenail fungus medicine that causes red itchy rashes on the toes from improper application.

Amputation – Accident, injury or trauma that causes one to lose a body part. Can also be a side effect from poor circulation, diabetes or infection. Usually refers to a toe, foot or leg below the knee in the podiatry setting. Often gives a good outcome and resolution of pain, infection, and other symptoms when a deformed toe with recurring infections is removed and the problem is solved.

Ankle Arthritis – osteophytes or spurring in the area between two bones

Ankle braces- can be OTC but dispensed by a Podiatrist, an example is a lace -up ankle brace for ankle sprains

Ankle Fractures – break of the tibia or fibula

Ankle instability- often the result of previous ankle sprains. Ligaments (ATFL, CFL, Deltoid) can be reconstructed or supported with braces, but should be protected.

Ankle Pain – tenderness in the joint between the foot and the lower leg

Ankle Sprains  – Occurs when the ankle is rolled, turned or twisted in an abnormal manner, breaking or tearing the tissue/ligaments that hold the ankle’s bones together. Usually you do not need surgery for a sprained ankle, however you should visit your doctor to have it evaluated and immobilized to give you the best outcome and fastest healing time, and keep a simple injury from getting worse by walking on it.  Ankle sprains are generally “graded” according to the extent of injury:  First Degree Sprains - is an injury in which one or more ligaments are stretched, accompanied by mild pain, bruising, inflammation, difficulty walking, and tenderness. Second Degree Sprains - one or more ligaments are partially torn, producing moderate pain and disability, bruising, inflammation, and the inability to bear weight. Third Degree Sprains -one or more ligaments are completely torn, resulting in severe pain and swelling, bruising, joint instability, and loss of function.

Ankylosis – Forming a bone or fusing together a joint.

Antifungal Nail Polish – Nail polish that aids in fighting against nail fungus because it is free from chemicals that are harmful. Beaver Valley Foot Clinic sells DaniPro, containing Vitamins E & A, and B7 (Biotin), and is a chip-resistant anti-fungal nail polish that comes in over 20 colors. It is undeclyenic acid infused and is not tested on animals.

Apophysitis- inflammation of a growth plate in a bone. A common one is calcaneal apophysitis, or sever's disease, occurs in 10-12 year old boys most commonly, and is an over use injury referred to as growing pains. should be evaluated by a Podiatrist. We see it at the beginning of football conditioning every year.

Arch Pain – soreness in the middle of the bottom of the foot, usually to the plantar fascia.

Arch Support – shoe insert that absorbs your body weight, relieving your foot joints of pressure and holds the subtalar joint in neutral. It is a support that is used on the bottoms of the shoe’s arch that relieves the muscle strain and relieves pain when standing, walking, running, etc.

Arthritis – inflammation of the joints. Arthritis is a painful condition that is caused by the tearing of the joint’s cartilage (osteoarthritis, poor-quality shoes, trauma, injury and/or age). With today’s medicine, arthritis is treatable but not curable.

Athlete’s Foot – Dermatophtye infection, usually T. mentagrophytes 

Atrophy – The degeneration, weakening or “wasting away” of body tissue, generally as a result from a disease or disuse ie. prolonged immobilization in a cast results in disuse atrophy.

Bacterial Conditions – Erythrasma (bright red wet infection between the toes), pitted keratolysis( from warm damp feet), cellulitis, staph and strep

Bacterial Skin Conditions- acne, impetigo

Baseball Injuries to the Foot and Ankle- please move the bat away from home plate so your players don't trip over it, from contusions from getting hit with the baseball to broken ankles needing a cast we are a full service practice.

Basement Membrane – Thin membrane that attaches the layers of skin tissue to the body. for example a plantar wart does not cross the basement membrane of the skin.

Basketball Injuries to the Foot and Ankle- inversion ankle sprains with damage to the anterior talo-fibular ligamentis the mostcommon, along with LisFranc joint fractures and dislocations. Often missed in the ER. See a Podiatrist.

Baxters nerve entrapment- controversial syndrome with pain presenting on the inside of the heel of the foot.

Benign neoplasm- and new growth or tumor that is not malignant. Represents most foot tumors. A plantar's wart is an example of a common benign foot tumor

Bilateral – Refers to both the right and left side of the body; something that affects both sides of a patient’s body.

 Biopsy- Soft Tissue – excising a small portion of tissue and sending it to a lab for identification

Black Toenail – Caused by nail trauma where it turns black from fungus, a bruise, too-tight shoes or cutting a nail too short.

Blister- fluid filled top layer of skin from a variety of reasons from burns to friction from shoes. Your skin trys to protect itself, these fluid-filled bumps develop due to friction mostly from shoes that rub you the wrong way! Wearing socks and making sure your shoes fit properly helps. You can be proactive by covering problem areas with a bandage or padding, and making sure feet stay dry.

Blood Clot or Deep Vein Thrombophlebitis (DVT) – DVT is a type of blood clot that is in the leg. It’s a very serious condition since it can possibly transfer to the lungs and cause trauma and/or death. Additionally, it may cause permanent trauma to the leg (Post Phlebitic Syndrome).

Boils- are inflamed, very painful areas of skin containing purulent drainage (pus). the most common infective agent is the Staph Aureus bacteria that can enter through eith a follicle or a break in the skin. Draining the pus and antibiotic therapy is the usual treatment of choice.

Bone Healing – six weeks is normal time with ends together and no movement at break site

Bone Infection – Osteomyelitis, usually bacterial infection into osseous tissue, a serious situation

Bone spurs- Heel spurs or top of foot by big toe and back of heel are common spurs easily removed, and should be evaulated

Bone Tumors in the Foot- Can often be felt, but usually require x-rays or special imaging like CT scan or MRI of the foot to fully evaluate. Most boney tumors in the foot are benign but 1-2% are malignant bone tumors of the foot.

Brachymetararsia – Shortened bone, most commonly the 4th metatarsal in the foot

Broken Bones – The foot’s bones can be broken from falls, stress, injuries, crashes or overuse. Immediate treatment includes addressing the broken foot by using the RICE method (rest, ice, compress, elevation). We can X-ray your foot or ankle in our office immediately and correctly immobilize it.

Bruise – Occurs when tiny blood vessels or capillaries rupture inside of the soft tissue body structures and appear blue, purple or dark red. They can appear anywhere on the body. Bones may also be bruised but you need an MRI or CT scan to assess that.

Bunion (Hallux Abducto Valgus) Medical condition where the first metatarsal is tilted away from the middle line of the foot  and the big toe points toward the smaller toes, may also have a red swollen bump that may be painful. The main cause of a bunion is genetics, but gets inflamed from wearing ill-fitting/tight shoes or shoes that constrict the toes (high heels) for a long amount of time. Also known as Hallux Valgus. If bunions are mild, they can often be treated by wearing wider shoes or by placing padding in your shoe. However, if the problem is severe, or if you are diabetic, you can schedule a simple, one-hour outpatient procedure that can have you back into your shoes within three to six weeks. You’ll be able to walk immediately, but will have to wear a special shoe for several weeks.

Bunionette- Oversize or genetically increased curvature of the 5th metatarsal head causing shoe pressure with pain from rubbing. This is commonly called a tailors bunion after the medieval crafter who sat cross legged sewing for hours irritating the bone on the side of the foot. Can often be simple shaved and healed in two weeks, but severe bunionettes need cut and pinned to reduce a large deformity.

Burn - can be thermal, chemical, friction... treatment often depends on the "degree" and depth of skin that is injured and can have longlasting effects if not evaluated and treated correctly.

Bursitis- inflammation of the bursal sac surrounding joins and tendons. Offloading and steriods are common treatments

Calcaneal Apophysitis (Sever’s Disease)- inflammation of a growth plate in a bone. A common one is calcaneal apophysitis, or sever's disease, occurs in 10-12 year old boys most commonly, and is an over use injury referred to as growing pains. should be evaluated by a Podiatrist. We see it at the beginning of football conditioning every year.

Calcaneus-  Heel bone

 Calcaneus  Fractures (Heel Bone Fractures)- usually from a jump or fall from a ladder or car accident

Calcification – Occurs when the tissue hardens or suddenly becomes inflexible. example back of heel spurs at attachment of the Achilles tendon into the calcaneous

Calf Pain- can be a medical emergency indicating a DVT ( deep Vein Thrombosis), or blood clot. Should be immediately evaluated to prevent a PE, or pulmonary embolus, which is when a portion of the clot breaks off and travels through the vein and gets stuck in the lung, blocking flow and impeding the ability to breathe, can be deadly.

Callus- Hardening of the keratin layer of the epidermis of skin, often painful and easily treated in the office.

Capsulitis of the Second Toe - floating toe syndrome, inflammation and/or weakening/damage to the capsule of the toe joint

Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)- often congenital, can cause rubbing in shoes on the top of the midfoot

Cellulitis - infection of skin and soft tissue structures, see a Podiatrist to evaluate if antibiotics are needed

Chiropodist – An outdated name for a podiatrist (foot doctor).

Charcot Foot- often caused by diabetic neuropathy leading to repetitive trauma to the foot causing inflammation and breakdown and even collapse of the foot. Must be casted and nonweightbearing to allow healing to prevent permanent deformity and/or amputation.

Children’s foot problems- warts, flatfeet, splinters, arch supports...

Chronic Ankle Instability- often due to inversion ankle sprains with damage to the anterior talo-fibular ligamentis the mostcommon, along with LisFranc joint fractures and dislocations. Often missed in the ER. See a Podiatrist. surgical reconstruction or bracing is often necessary.

Clawtoe- contracture of both DIPJ and PIPJ of the digit, easily fixable in the office

Clubfoot commonly present at birth includes metatarsal adductus and calcaneal inversion. prompt treatment if even appropriate stretching is needed.

Cold Feet- Raynaud's syndrome, poor circulation, lupus, normal variation... see a podiatrist to see if your cold feet are benign or need immediate attention to save your foot.

Compartment Syndrome increased pressure within a fascial compartment in the foot or leg, May be exercised or injury induced.

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – Chronic pain on a certain area of the body, typically the legs, arms, hands or feet. CRPS is caused from damage to the central or peripheral nervous system.

Compression stockings

Congenital Skin Diseases : eczema, psoriasis, and dermatitis

Contact Dermatitis

Contracted toe

Contusion – A bump or a bruise or an injury involving the skin but does not tear it.

Corns/Calluses – Corns and calluses are among the most commonly treated foot conditions. Corns are the thickening of the skin on its outer layer around the toe’s tops, where calluses are similar condition but on the bottom of the feet. These conditions are caused from pressure and can be painful. Can be removed by your podiatrist with a scalpel, don’t try this at home! Be careful applying over the counter corn pads to between the toes, or anywhere if you are diabetic, it can lead to disaster.

Cosmetic Foot Surgery – A surgical process that alters the size or appearance of the foot/feet, for example, to make the foot slimmer or smaller in the absence of pain or disease.

Cracked Heels – fissure or cracks in heels, often from athletes foot

Crush injury

Crutch Use – ambulation devices to keep weight off an injured body part

Cryosurgery – A minimally invasive process  using very cold temperatures applied precisely with a probe tip to eliminate tissue that is diseased or unnatural. A great alternative to open surgery. It’s used to cure a variety of disorders and diseases and can be used for neuromas, Plantar Fasciitis and soft tissue tumors.

CT scan -  A special X-ray that uses images in conjunction with a computer to produce a series of two-dimensional pictures of the body. Also known as a computerized tomography scan, a CT scanner emits a series of thin X-ray beams that pass through the body at different angles. The CT is very useful for looking at bones as it allows the physician to see the edges of the bone without shadows from other bones that are seen on X-ray.

Custom Orthotic Devices – shoe inserts made from casted plaster or foam to put into shoes to support the body in desired position

CVI study


Cyst-Ganglion – mucoid fluid filled soft tissue tumor, usually coming from a joint capsule or tendon sheath.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) – blood clot in a vein, usually in the leg, can travel to the lungs, causing a medical emergency. Often occurs from injury or prolonged immobilization as from travel, or surgery.

Dermatitis – inflammation of the skin, usuallu caused by outside the body factors/reaction. which is opposite of eczema. common types: Allergic contact dermatitis,  Primary irritant dermatitis (ie, detergents, hairdressing chemicals, alkalis,  acids and solvents), Nickel dermatitis, chromium dermatitis, and dermatitis herpetiformis which is less common but very itchy. can be related to gluten sensitivity and causes symmetrical blisters on shoulders, elbows, knees, and buttocks

Dermis – The thick connective skin tissue located directly below the epidermis.

Diabetes – In regards to a patient’s feet, diabetes is the most traumatic disease to patients. Diabetes has two types (1 and 2). Type 1 diabetes typically stems from juvenile diabetes, which is usually hereditary. Type 2 diabetes (“adult diabetes”) stems from high levels of blood sugar caused from poor diet or being overweight.

Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention

Diabetic Foot Care – Regular examination of diabetic feet, aimed at early intervention and prention and care of diabetic foot ulcers and other problems

Diabetic Nail Care and Exams – Because of reduced blood flow or nerve damage in the feet, individuals with diabetes are prone to many complications, including foot infections. If left untreated, these infections—some of which begin as just cuts or blisters—could lead to potentially serious consequences, including foot, toe, or even leg amputation.

Diabetic Neuropathy – Family of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes and its complication. People with diabetes can develop nerve damage over time. Some people with nerve damage suffer from numbness, pain and tingling, or loss of feeling in the legs, arms, feet and hands.

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy – Numbess, pain or tingling caused by nerve damage

Diabetic Shoes – custom measures shoe with custom molded inserts to protect the diabetic foot from friction, rubbing or blisters that can lead to diabetic foot infections

Diabetic socks

Diabetic ulcers

Diagnostic ultrasound

Digit – A toe or finger.


Distal- Farthest away from the central location of the body or part in question, such as the toes are distal to the heel.

Dorsal/dorsum- Upper surface of the foot.

Dorsiflexion- Upward movement of the foot.

Drop Foot – loss of muscle strength to the muscles on the top of the foot or the front of the leg from either stroke or neuropathy, leading to the inability to lift the foot off the ground while walking

Dry Heels – heels lacking moisture in the keratinized layer leading to sloughing skin or possible cracking, allowing bacteria entry into the foot

DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) – blood clot in a vein, usually in the leg, can travel to the lungs, causing a medical emergency. Often occurs from injury or prolonged immobilization as from travel, or surgery.

Dr. Scholl – Footcare and footwear company.

Dry Cracked Heels – Foot condition in which the bottom half of the heel is thickened and/or cracked. For most, this is only a cosmetic issue, however, if the dryness continues for long periods of time, it can lead to more serious medical problems. Can be indicative to tinea pedis (athletes foot) and may respond to topical antifungals.

Economy Class Syndrome – Indicates the small, economy seats on airplanes that may cause pulmonary embolism, vein thrombosis or death. Comes from not moving the calf muscles that help pump blood in the veins back to the heart for prolonged periods of time, leading to the formation of Deep Vein blood clots.

Eczema of the Foot – flaking scaling skin disorder, erythema (reddening) with the formation of vesicles, which may crust or weep. Types; Atopic eczema is associated with hay fever or asthma; Seborrhoeic eczema assoc with yeasts; Nummular or Discoid eczema, occurs in adults and can be coin-shaped or oval in shape; Pompholyx eczema- occurs only in hands and feet; Stasis eczema( or also called Gravitational eczema) is also called varicose eczema and is associated with poor vein health and swollen legs, especially lower legs and ankles

Edema – A condition in which an abnormal amount of fluid collects in cavities or body tissues, especially the lower legs causing ankle anf leg swelling. May also be seen on abnormal MRIs indicating an abnormality or injury to bone or soft tissue.

Endoscopic Surgery – Surgical method or tool used to examine a closed space with a camera in the body. During endoscopic surgery in the foot, it typically is used to treat the plantar fascia.

Equinus – inability of the ankle to dorsiflex past 90 degrees

ESWT – Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy is a non-surgical, non-invasive method to help treat a variety of problems and conditions using shock waves. Generally used for Plantar Fasciitis and heel pain.


Exostosis – A benign growth of the bone in an outward direction, away from the bone’s surface.

Extra Bones

Fallen Arches

Fibroma- fibrous subcutaneous tumor of the connective tissue

Field Hockey Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Fifth Metatarsal Fracture

Fissures- cracks in the heel of the foot

Flat Feet – Usually not an issue, however some people with flat feet or highly arched feet can experience severe pain in the lower back, knee or ankle, and may need treatment. Someone who has flat feet has little or no arch at all, which is most likely due to heredity. In older persons, they are usually caused by arthritis or an injury to a tendon, muscle, or ligament. People with flat feet tend to over pronate, causing other foot and ankle problems. We can creats custom-made orthotics in our office to help realign the joints and bones. 

Flatfoot-Adult Acquired- overpronation in the subtalar joint causing loss of arch height, often from tearing or weakening of the posterior tibial tendon.

Flatfoot-Flexible- when the arch height is normal nonweightbearing, but the foot flattens when you stand up.

Flatfoot-Pediatric- many children have no arch under 1 year old, but in some it never appears.

Flexible Flatfoot- when the arch height is normal nonweightbearing, but the foot flattens when you stand up.

Fluroscopy- x-ray type machine used during surgery to give real time imaging of bony structures.

Folliculitis- Commonly caused by a yeast infection (Pityrosporum), this infection causes inflammation in the hair follicles of the skin.

Foot – A lower extremity of the leg and ankle, on which a person walks.

Foot Arthritis- spurring, exostosis of bone in joints, or wearing away of joint cartilage.

Foot Bumps- many cause, should be evaluated by a podiatrist.

Foot Drop –  loss of muscle strength to the muscles on the top of the foot or the front of the leg from either stroke or neuropathy, leading to the inability to lift the foot off the ground while walking

Foot Fracture – break in one of the 29 bones in the foot

Foot Lumps- many cause, should be evaluated by a podiatrist.

Foot Odor – Corynebacterium is a common cause and creates a terrible smell as it releases Sulfer compounds. Anyone spending long hours in hot sweaty boots is at risk- our military, farm workers, football or soccer players. Your Podiatrist will most likely prescribe a topical antibiotic and recommend antiperspirant be applied to the feet after your daily shower and washing with an antimicrobial cleanser. ( see hyperhydrosis). 

Foot Pain – The feeling of discomfort in the foot caused from injury, disorders or trauma to any area of the foot including blood vessels, connective tissues, nerves, bones and muscles. Causes vary but include sprains and breaks to the bones, ligaments, tissues or tendons, arthritis, diabetes, spurs, plantar fasciitis, infections, etc.

Foot Rash- bacterial, fungal, autoimmune, allergic, viral-should be evaluated.

Foot Tumors and Ganglion Cysts – A cavity filled with a jelly-like substance that emits from the tendon, fascial planes, joints or bones. Often times, osteoporosis occurs when the foot tumor is present. Surgical removal is necessary.

Foot Ulcers – Broken down skin on the bottom (plantar) region of the foot. Foot ulcers can be caused from diabetes (most commonly) but also a vascular insufficiency. These can lead to loss limbs.

Football Injuries to the Foot and Ankle- in young athletes growth plate injuries are easily missed on x-ray-see a podiatrist.

Foreign Bodies – An object inside the body that is not generally supposed to be present.

Fracture – Break in the bone. Either a stress fracture (result from repeated micro trauma) or traumatic fracture (result of an injury).



Fractures of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone Fractures)

Fractures of the Fifth Metatarsal



Fungal Infection – An inflammatory condition caused by a fungal infection. Most often seen in older adults or immunodeficient people. May become life threatening if action is not taken. Examples of fungal infections include candidiasis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, blastomycosis, etc.

Fungal Skin Infections- tinea corporis, tinea pedis, tinea manus, 

Fungi – Group of plants (for example, mushrooms, mold or yeast) that live on decaying

Fungus Nail, Fungal Nails – Fungal Nails can be deformed or thickened, and usually painful toenails that stem from a fungal infection. The fungus initially infects the nail, then causes decay, the nail can finally become cracked and crumbled or creates a thick nail.

Gait abnormality- Any abnormal form of locomotion. For example, walking, running

Gait analysis

Ganglion Cyst


Genu varum- Bow legged -because of an outward bowing of the lower leg, when compared to the thigh

Geriatic foot care

Golf Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Gout – Typically derived from genetics, Gout, also known as Hyperuricemia, is a type or
arthritis. It’s caused from diuretics, increase intakes of purine and/or elevated weight loss. Side effects include mild to intense pain of a joint.


Haglund’s Deformity – Condition on the back of the heel, where the achilles tendon meets the heel; generally causes discomfort and pain.

Hallux Rigidus

Hallux valgus

Hallux Varus – More commonly known as a bunion, hallux varus is a deformity which occurs when one’s big toe drifts away from the other toes.

Hammertoe – is an arched middle toe, with the toe pointed downward and the joint in the air. It’s the result of an abnormal “buckling” or contraction that puts the toe in a clenched, claw-like position. Once stiff, it may lock into position, then hammertoes will rub on your shoes that cause painful calluses and corns on the affected toe or toes. Sometimes, hammertoes can be treated using home remedies, like using corn pads or wearing wider shoes that allow your toes extra room. However, if the damage becomes severe, hammertoes can be fixed with a simple, minimally invasive, 15-minute office procedure. The toe’s contracted tendons are reduced, the toe is straightened, and an artificial joint may be used to stabilize the toe.

Heel – Portion of the back of the foot.

Heel Bone Fractures

Heel Cracks

Heel Fissures

Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis )– Condition in which the back or under-area of the heel is painful. See plantar fasciitis.

Heel Spur, aka Plantar Fasciitis – Plantar Fasciitis, also called a heel spur, causes pain, irritation, and inflammation across the bottom of the foot. The plantar fascia, a ligament that runs from the heel of your foot to the ball, connects your heel bone to your toes. When this ligament becomes strained, it can result in chronic pain.


Herpes- virus that causes small blisters on mucous membranes and skin; spread by skin t skin contact

Herpes Simplex- HSV 1(common cold sore), HSV II ( genital herpes, sexually transmitted)

Herpes Zoster- Shingles- Varicella zoster virus, also causes chicken pox. The virus can lay dormant for years,  then follow a sensory nerve from the spine and cause a painful rash in a dermatome, can affect the feet

High-Arched Foot

Home Remedy – Treatment, medicine or remedy created with no scientific support that
supposedly cures pain, illness or a minor problem.

Hyperhidrosis – Condition in which one excessively sweats in or around the feet. Patients with anemia or hyperthyroidism usually experience hyperhidrosis. If this becomes a problem and a patient is uncomfortable, there are several treatment options available including antiperspirants, oral medications, Botox and surgery.

Hyperkeratosis- A hardening and thickening of the skin usually associated with a boney influence or friction.

In Office Diagnostic Ultrasound – Process that uses high frequency sound waves to create structural images of the body’s interior The images give beneficial data needed for diagnostics and treatments for an array of conditions.

Infected Toenail – Chronic condition where the edge of the toenail (typically the big toe) grows into the skin. Symptoms include redness, pain, swelling, itchiness and infection.

Inflammation: Acute

Ingrown Toenails – Foot condition when the corners or edges of the toenail (or fingernail) grow into the toe’s soft tissue. Ingrown toenails are also known as unguis incarnates or onychocryptosis. It’s a common condition that can cause redness, swelling, irritation, uncomfortable warmth sensations, can be painful and can lead to infection.

Intermittent claudication

Instructions for Using Crutches

Intermetatarsal Neuroma


Inversion - Turning in toward the midline of the body.

Impetigo- Bullous impetigo- caused by staph aureus; Nonbullous impetigo -caused by staph and strep, more common in children and highly contagious. Weepy yellowish crusts form, often on the face.

IPK -(intractable plantar  keratosis) -A deeply nucleated keratotic lesion on the bottom of the foot that may leave its mark as an area of increased pressure on a receiving surface.

Joint Pain in the Foot

Joint Swelling in the Foot

Jones Fracture

Jublia (efinaconazole) – Antifungal medication used to treat fungal infections on the toenail. The treatment is a clear – yellow liquid with a brush application.

Juvenile bunion

Kerydin –  FDA approved topical solution treatment for toenail fungus, used to stop the growth of nail fungus.


Lacrosse Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Laser – Acronym for the Light Amplification by the Simulated Emission of Radiation.

Laser Hair Removal  – If you’re tired of the cleanup, nicking your ankles or knees with a razor, try permanent hair reduction.

Laser Treatment – Treatment that involves extremely high heated, targeted light beams to remove tissue in a non-invasive procedure to remove lesions.

Lesion – Damage to an area of the body that causes discomfort and pain, either acute or
chronic. Acute lesions last a short amount of time and are characterized by swelling, pain, heat and reddening. Chronic lesions occur more often but less accessible.

Ligament - A band of tissue that connects one bone to another, typically to support a joint. Ligaments are made primarily of collagen. Injury to a ligament is referred to as a sprain.

Lisfranc Injuries


Malignant Melanoma of the Foot - The most dangerous and concerning type of skin cancer. Melanoma numbers are increasing, especially in women under 40. Typically found on the legs and back.

Mallet toe - Mallet toe is a deformity of a lesser toe similar to a hammer toe but with less of a curvature of the toe. Only the joint at the tip of the toe is flexed in a mallet toe. The condition may be present at birth (congenital) or may develop from wearing ill-fitting shoes. Mallet toe generally leads to a painful callus on the tip of the toe.

Medial -Nearer to the midline.



Metatarsal Problems/IPK – Metatarsal problems occur when one wears shoes that lack support and the proper padding, or are too tight and narrow which causes pain when walking and running. IPK occurs when severe calluses on the bottom of the foot develop.

Metatarsus adductus

Morton’s Neuroma – Condition that affects the ball of the foot, usually between the 3rd and 4th toes. This painful condition feels like you’re standing on a rock or there’s a stone in your shoe. Morton’s Neuroma is when the tissue thickens around one of the nerves that lead to a toe, which causes sharp burns or pain in the ball of the foot.

MRI - Magnetic resonance imaging, is an imaging study in which the patient lies in a large tube and the limb is magnetized while pictures are taken. MRI is a three-dimensional picture showing soft tissues and bones. Ligaments, tendons, cartilage and muscles are shown and certain biologic conditions such as infection, avascular necrosis and bone bruises can be seen. Both open and closed machines are available.

MRSA Infection of the Foot

Navicular Disease – A boat shaped bone on the wrist or ankle.

Nerve damage –  can be from an injury caused by trauma, but may also be caused by a neurological condition.  Either way can result in numb feet, loss of movement, numbness in toes. Sometimes a side effect of diabetic neuropathy.


Neuroma – Also known as a nerve tumor or pinched nerve. Swollen, irritated nerve as a result of pressure or injury, located in the ball of the foot. Symptoms include pain when walking (in the foot), swelling, numbness, tingling and sharp toe pain. One should see a doctor immediately if experiencing these symptoms.


Nevi -Small benign pigmented lesions of the skin – often described as “moles.”

Night splints

Non-Union – After a surgery, when the bone fails to come back together due to walking on the foot too quickly.

NSAID – Acronym for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. These treat the immune system without the use of steroids, but instead, using aspirin.


Onychomycosis – Fungal nail disease in the bed or plate of the nail.

Orthopedic – Area of medicine that aims at preventing or correcting issues with muscles and bones, particularly the spine and joints.

Orthoses - A brace or other external device used to support a joint or the foot.

Orthotics – Branch of medicine that concentrates on the use of artificial tools and devices,
including braces, splints, etc. for weak joints.

Orthotics – Tools used to treat abnormal functions of the feet. When one or both feet are not properly functioning, one will experience mild to severe pain. Orthotics can relieve this pain by aiding the ligaments and bones to control the foot’s function (walking, running, etc.).

Orthotics and Arch Supports – When considering an orthotic device, one should be evaluated by a podiatrist. A thorough biomechanical exam evaluates your specific gait pattern and joint motion involving your lower extremities, your foot type, muscle strength, age, activity level, and shoe gear will also be evaluated in order to properly prescribe your foot orthotics. Orthotics come in Rigid, Semi-Rigid and Soft/Flexible.

Orthotist - A practitioner who makes and fits braces and devices to support a joint or the foot.


Osteochondrosis dessicans

Os Trigonum Syndrome


Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

Osteomyelitis – Bone infection which requires several weeks or months of intravenous
treatments, and possibly antibiotics or surgery.


P.A.D. (Peripheral Arterial Disease)


Pain in joint


Pediatric Flatfoot

Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

Peripheral Neuropathy: Diabetic

Peroneal Tendon Injuries

Pes Cavus foot

Pes plantus foot

Phalanges - Phalanges are the long bones of the toes (or fingers). 

Physical therapy


Pitted Keratolysis– ( from warm damp feet), Bacterial infection with characteristic  “pits”  with whitish skin . This is a common cause of smelly feet. The skin infection is found on the outer layers of the skin. Corynebacterium is a common cause and creates a terrible smell as it releases Sulfer compounds. Anyone spending long hours in hot sweaty boots is at risk- our military, farm workers, football or soccer players, any one immunocompromised or with diabetes is also at risk. As it progresses, clusters of small pits can come together as large cratered pits.  Your Podiatrist will most likely prescribe a topical antibiotic and recommend antiperspirant be applied to the feet after your daily shower and washing with an antimicrobial cleanser. ( see hyperhydrosis). 

Plantar – Refers to the sole of the foot.

Plantar fascia - Plantar fascia is a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue supporting the arch of the foot.

Plantar Fasciitis


Plantar Fibroma

Plantarflexed metatarsal


Plantars Warts (Verruca Plantaris) – Warts are a skin infection from human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common skin viral infection. Plantar warts grow on the sole of the feet, or the plantar surface. They tend to be on an area of friction and pressure. HPV only infects the superficial layer of skin, creating callus-like growths.

Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy – Active people along with athletes who experience tendon injuries or pains, or osteoarthritis qualify for platelet rich plasma therapy, which is a non-invasive, non-surgical procedure that uses the person’s own blood to fix the tendon. Can be used for heel pain.

Podiatrist – Area of medicine focusing on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of issues with the feet and ankles.


Port Wine Stain- permanent discoloration of skin ,

Posterior tibial tendon - The posterior tibial tendon and other supportive ligaments help maintain the arch of the foot. This tendon goes behind the ankle and around a bone inside the ankle called the medial malleolus.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)- abnormal stretching or ROM of the PTT allowing overpronation or flattening of the arch.

Power Step – Top quality orthotic insoles that support and cushion the foot to relieve pain.

Pressure ulcer- breakdown of the skin from prolonged pressure to the area, often seen in bedridden patients or diabetics with neuropathy

Pronation- indicates triplaner movement of the subtalar joint of the foot, the joint that gives flatfeet or high arches

Psoriasis – Common chronic skin disease that causes irritating itching and redness (heavy, red flaky skin and/or white patches).

Psoriatic nails- can be related to an seronegative autoimmune condition and skin presenting with rosy or whitish scaling plaques. severe cases can involve the nails and even cause arthritis

Pump Bump (Hallux Rigidus)- forms where the achilles tendon attaches to the back of the heal (calcaneous). Gets its name from being commonly irritated from womens' dress shoes (pumps)

Puncture Wounds


Raynauds Phenomenon- red white and blue toe syndrome, often occurs in response to cold that causes the capillaries to spasm

Restless Legs

Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Foot and Ankle

R.I.C.E Protocol-  rest, ice, compression, and elevation used totreat acute injuries like ankle sprains.

Rugby Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Running and Track Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Running Injuries

Realignment of Distal Phalanx – Refers to the process of realigning the surface of the plantar with average weight.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy – Chronic condition which occurs when the nerves in the arm or leg becomes numb, swollen or tender. RSD can occur after a small injury in the ankle, foot or leg. Aggressive treatment is necessary for complete recovery.

RF (Radiofrequency Treatments) – Procedure using injections to treat joint pain due to arthritis, injury or trauma.

RICE – Rest, ice, compression, elevate. Should be used to help treat fractures or broken bones.

Running Injuries – Injuries that occur from the activity or walking, jogging or running. Most running injuries occur within the lower leg, ankle and feet and result in breaks, fractures, sprains, bruising, plantar fasciitis and heel pain


Septic joint- infection of a joint

Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

Sesamoiditis – The inflammation of sesamoid bones that alters the front of the foot, usually in young adults who are active. Symptoms include pain or bruising in the ball of the foot.

Severe’s disease- calcaneal apophysitis, also called "growing pains", 

Shingles– Herpes Zoster virus, lies dormant in the spine after chicken pox, can reactivate as a painful rash anywhere on the body, including the foot and leg.

Shin Splints – Technically, shin splints are the tearing of the anterior tibial muscle away from the bone. Pain occurs in the knee and leg, along the shin bone that happens when one overuses or overextends themselves.

Shoe Insert – Non-perscription support for feet that are placed inside of the shoes. There are prepackaged and custom made shoe inserts, depending on the patients needs.

Shockwave Therapy- ESWT- Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy, or Orthotripsy, similar to Lithotripsy, used to break up scar tissue and chronic inflammation  found in Plantar Fasciitis, Achilles Tendonitis,Tennis Elbow and similar conditions.

Skin Cancer of the Foot and Ankle- melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma... 

Skin Pigmentation Disorders- Albinism, Chloasma (melasma), Lentigo, Nevi, Papilloma (moles), Port Wine Stain, and Vitilgo

Smelly Feet- can be caused by hyperhydrosis (sweaty feet), then the bacteria beaks down the sweat with sulfurous by products, causing the customary odor.

Soccer Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Soft Tissue Biopsy- tissue sent to a lab for identification

Soft tissue mass- neoplasm of various origins

Softball Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Sole – The bottom of the foot.

Spider Vein Treatment – Spider veins, usually a precursor to varicose veins, are thin red and blue lines that can show up anywhere. They are veins, usually located on the legs and ankles, that have become enlarged, twisted, and swollen. When the valves in your veins become weak, blood can pool in your legs, causing pressure and red, blue, or purple lines throughout your legs. If they are left untreated, they can become a serious medical condition. Our lasers can treat your spider veins.

Sports Injuries – Occurs when the ankle is rolled, turned or twisted in an abnormal manner, breaking or tearing the tissue/ligaments that hold the ankle’s bones together. Usually you do not need to seek medical attention for a sprained ankle, however if it continues to hurt after a few weeks, then visit your doctor.

Sprained Ankle – Injury occurring when the ankle turns, rolls or twists in an unusual way. A sprained ankle is also known as rolled ankle, ligament injury, ankle sprain, floppy ankle or twisted ankle.  When a ligament in your ankle is pushed beyond its limit, the fibers might stretch, tear, or move into an abnormal position. This is a very common injury that can happen during sports, or just from stepping on an uneven surface, like a hole in the ground. Also a rupture of one or more of the ligaments that surround the ankle.

Staph Infections of the Foot- bacteria that causes infection.

Stress Fractures – A severe bruise or a small crack in the bone. Stress fractures are usually caused by overextending or repeated activity and overuse, common with athletes. They occur most often in the 2nd or 3rd metatarsals of the foot, because this is the biggest area of impact when the foot pushes off to walk or run. Stress fractures can also occur in the ankle joint (talus), fibula (outer bone on the ankle), heel (calcaneus), and the bone on the top of the foot (navicular). Common symptoms include pain and swelling that can be relieved with rest, prescribe shoewear, Vitamin D or calcium supplements.

Stretching exercises- physical therapy



Sweaty Feet – See hyperhidrosis.

Swollen Ankles

Swollen Feet- edema of the feet


Synovial Sarcoma – A tumor filled with soft tissue that surrounds a joint. They are generally slow to grow and very painful. Typically found in young adults, synovial sarcoma occurs typically in the knees. It can be misdiagnosed as plantar fasciitis.

Tailor’s Bunion- baby bunion, or bony deformity of the 5th metatarsal

Talar Dome Lesion

Tarsal Coalition

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome – Condition that affects the inside of the ankle, when the Posterior Tibial nerve becomes inflamed for pronation or arthritic issues such as trauma, obesity or rheumatoid arthritis.

Tattoo removal – If you’re tired of a particular tattoo, for whatever reason, try turning it into invisible ink, we have the premium choice for any color of tattoo removing.  

Tendinitis or tendonitis – (tendonitis, golfer’s elbow, tennis elbow) – Tissue swelling, inflammation or irritation that connects the muscle to the bone, can be rheumatic disease but most commonly occurs from strain or overuse.  Tendinitis can be on the hands, upper arm/shoulder, elbow and top of the foot. Sometimes it can be treated on its own, but it often needs therapy or surgical repair.

Tendon Achilles


Tendon Rupture

Tennis Injuries to the Foot and Ankle


The Rebuilder for Neuropathy – Made for home use, the rebuilder for neuropathy is a 30-min safe treatment (FDA approved) that one can conduct on themselves. Used to electronically measure how the peripheral nerves are functioning and relieve pain.

Thick Toenails- often caused by mycosis or fungal infection, or injury to the nails.

Tingly Feet- paresthesias, or funny feelings in the feet. Common causes are diabetic neuropathy, B-12 deficiency, or piched nerves in the lower back.

Tinea Coprporus- also called ringworm, is a fungal infection that can affect the skin. Animals can infect people. Can be intensely itchy and can spread from eith direct contact or from infected objects.

Tinea pedis- Athletes Foot- Common form of a fungus that can affect the foot and between the toes. Can be treated either with oral antifungal agents or with topical creams or gels applied directly to the rash.

Tired Feet

Toe and Metatarsal Fractures- Broken Toes

Toenail Fungus – Condition in which the nail develops a yellow-white spot under the tip of the toenail, eventually causing major discoloration of the nail and ultimately causing it to thicken and decompose.

Toe Walking- can be caused by a tight Achilles tendon.

Turf Toe- A sprain in the big toe joint that happens when it’s hyper extended, usually from pushing off into a sprint. It occurs at the base joint where the foot and first big toe bone connect.

Urticaria-itchy hives

Valgus - A term meaning tilted outward or away from the midline of the body.

Varus A term meaning tilted inward or toward the midline of the body.

Varicose Vein – Varicose veins are very common, in fact, as many as 60 percent of people have them once they reach a certain age. They are veins, usually located on the legs and ankles, that have become enlarged, twisted, and swollen. Varicose veins are usually darker, purple-blue lines found on the legs. When the valves in your veins become weak, blood can pool in your legs, causing pressure and red, blue, or purple lines throughout your legs.

Venous insufficiency- incompetent valves in the lower extremity

verucca- plantars wart

Viral skin conditions: warts, verrucas, herpes, herpes simplex, herpes zoster

Volleyball Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

Warts- verruca

Weak Ankle-instability of the joints ligaments, or tendons of the ankle

Webbed Toes- syndactaly

White Toenails



Wrong Side Surgery – Surgery that is conducted in the wrong area of the body. When this happens, although rare, the effects can be traumatic.


X-rays – A digital image of the electromagnetic wave that passes through different materials and different degrees of light.

Yellow Toenails- often caused by fungal or other infections.